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Santiago Diaz
Santiago Diaz

Encrypt and Decrypt Your Files with Cipher.exe for Windows 2000 and Later

How to Download and Use Cipher.exe in Windows

If you want to protect your data from unauthorized access, encryption is one of the best methods to do so. Encryption is the process of transforming data into an unreadable form that can only be decrypted with a specific key. Windows provides a built-in command-line tool called Cipher.exe that can help you encrypt and decrypt your data on NTFS drives. Cipher.exe can also help you securely delete your data by overwriting it with random data, making it impossible to recover.

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In this article, we will explain what Cipher.exe is, how to download it, how to use it, what are its benefits and risks, and what are some alternatives to it. By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of how to use Cipher.exe to enhance your data security and privacy.

What is Cipher.exe?

Cipher.exe is a command-line tool that is included with Windows 2000 and later versions. It allows you to perform two main functions:

A command-line tool for encrypting and decrypting data on NTFS drives

Cipher.exe can encrypt and decrypt files and folders on NTFS drives using the Encrypting File System (EFS). EFS is a feature of Windows that enables transparent encryption and decryption of files by using advanced cryptography. EFS uses a combination of symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms to protect your data. Symmetric encryption uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data, while asymmetric encryption uses a public key to encrypt data and a private key to decrypt it.

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When you encrypt a file or folder with EFS, Windows generates a unique symmetric key called the File Encryption Key (FEK) for that file or folder. The FEK is then encrypted with your public key and stored in the file's header or the folder's metadata. Your private key is stored in your user profile and protected by your password. When you access an encrypted file or folder, Windows decrypts the FEK with your private key and then decrypts the file or folder with the FEK.

Cipher.exe allows you to encrypt and decrypt files and folders from the command prompt by using various parameters. You can also use Cipher.exe to view the encryption status of files and folders, change advanced settings, create custom templates, and test your website.

A security tool for overwriting deleted data on a hard disk

Cipher.exe can also overwrite deleted data on a hard disk by using the /w parameter. This parameter removes data from available unused disk space on an entire volume. This feature improves security by ensuring that even an attacker who gained complete physical control of your computer would be unable to recover previously-deleted data.

When you delete files or folders, the data is not initially removed from the hard disk. Instead, the space on the disk that was occupied by the deleted data is deallocated. After it is deallocated, the space is available for use when new data is written to the disk. Until the space is. overwritten by new data, the deleted data remains on the disk and can be recovered by using specialized software or hardware tools.

Cipher.exe overwrites the deleted data by writing random data to the disk three times. The first time, it writes a series of zeros. The second time, it writes a series of 255s. The third time, it writes a random number. This process makes it extremely difficult for anyone to recover the deleted data.

How to Download Cipher.exe?

Cipher.exe is available in Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 or later versions. You can check your Windows version and service pack level by typing winver in the Run dialog box or the command prompt.

If you have Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 or later, you already have Cipher.exe installed on your system. You can find it in the System32 folder under the Windows directory. For example, C:\Windows\System32\Cipher.exe.

If you do not have Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 or later, you can download Cipher.exe individually or as part of a security rollup package from the Microsoft website. The security rollup package contains several other security updates and enhancements for Windows 2000. You can download it from here:

After downloading Cipher.exe or the security rollup package, you need to run the executable file and follow the instructions to install it on your system. You may need to restart your computer after the installation is complete.

How to Use Cipher.exe?

To use Cipher.exe, you need to open a command prompt window with administrator privileges. To do this, click Start, type cmd in the search box, right-click Command Prompt, and select Run as administrator. Alternatively, you can press Windows key + X and select Command Prompt (Admin) from the menu.

Once you have opened a command prompt window with administrator privileges, you can type cipher followed by various parameters to perform different tasks. The basic syntax of Cipher.exe is as follows:

cipher [/e /d /c] [/s:directory] [/a] [/i] [/f] [/q] [/h] [/k] [/u] [/n] [pathname [...]]

The parameters are explained below:




Encrypts the specified files or folders.


Decrypts the specified files or folders.


Displays the encryption status of the specified files or folders.


Performs the specified operation on all files and folders in the specified directory and its subdirectories.


Performs the specified operation on files and folders with the hidden or system attributes.


Continues performing the specified operation even after errors have occurred. By default, Cipher.exe stops when an error is encountered.


Forces the encryption or decryption of all specified files or folders, regardless of their current encryption status.


Reports only the most essential information.


Displays files with hidden or system attributes. By default, these files are not displayed.


Creates a new file encryption key for the user running Cipher.exe. This option only works with /u.


Updates the user's file encryption key or recovery agent's key to the current ones in all of the encrypted files on local drives. This option only works with /n or /k.


Prevents files from being encrypted when they are moved to an encrypted folder.

pathname [...]

Specifies a pattern, file, or folder.

You can also use Cipher.exe to overwrite deleted data on a hard disk by using the /w parameter. The syntax for this parameter is as follows:

cipher /w:driveletter

The parameter is explained below:




Removes data from available unused disk space on the specified drive. The drive letter must be followed by a colon (:).

Examples of common scenarios

Here are some examples of how to use Cipher.exe for common scenarios:

Encrypting and decrypting files and folders

To encrypt a file or folder, type cipher /e followed by the file or folder name. For example, to encrypt a file named secret.txt in the C:\Documents folder, type:

cipher /e C:\Documents\secret.txt</c


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