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Virtual Table Top

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Christopher Harrington
Christopher Harrington

Virtual Breadboard Crack Hit

Cold Joint is the same as virtual welding. It is difficult to fully expose during the production process. It often requires users to use it for a period of time, which may be days, months, or even years. This will not only have extremely bad effects but cause extremely serious consequences. Because the strength of cold welding is low, the conductivity is not good.

virtual breadboard crack hit

It is possible that this joint will work as there is still electrical contact made. But the mechanical strength is not high. Nevertheless, a solder-starved joint is likely to fail eventually as cracks develop over time and weaken the joint. Fortunately, rescuing a solder-starved joint is not difficult. Simply reheat the joint and add more solder.

The number one cause of electronics issues is a bad connection. Sometimes electronic prototypes just start acting strangely for no obvious reason. Components may stop working, microcontrollers may stop taking code, or some other frustrating issue may take place. These problems are usually traced back to a fragile connection. Sometimes the culprit is a wire that has obviously come loose. Other times, however, the cause is harder to spot such as a hairline crack in a solder joint.

The most obvious way to reduce unintentional damage to a PCB is to not have to repair it in the first place. Being rigorous in your design and breadboard prototyping will help to control any issues with the circuit.

We have proposed a virtual quadratic Newton rings phase-shifting moiré-fringes measurement method in a nonnull interferometer to measure the large radius of curvature for a spherical surface. In a quadratic polar coordinate system, linear carrier testing Newton rings interferogram and virtual Newton rings interferogram form the moiré fringes. It is possible to retrieve the wavefront difference data between the testing and standard spherical surface from the moiré fringes after low-pass filtering. Based on the wavefront difference data, we deduced a precise formula to calculate the radius of curvature in the quadratic polar coordinate system. We calculated the retrace error in the nonnull interferometer using the multi-configuration model of the nonnull interferometric system in ZEMAX. Our experimental results indicate that the measurement accuracy is better than 0.18% for a spherical mirror with a radius of curvature of 41,400 mm.

Non-null interferometry could use to measure the radius of curvature (ROC), we have presented a virtual quadratic Newton rings phase-shifting moiré-fringes measurement method for large ROC measurement (Yang et al., 2016). In this paper, we propose a large ROC measurement method based on the evaluation of the interferogram-quality metric by the non-null interferometer. With the multi-configuration model of the non-null interferometric system in ZEMAX, the retrace errors and the phase introduced by the test surface are reconstructed. The interferogram-quality metric is obtained by the normalized phase-shifted testing Newton rings with the spherical surface model in the non-null interferometric system. The radius curvature of the test spherical surface can be obtained until the minimum of the interferogram-quality metric is found. Simulations and experimental results are verified the feasibility of our proposed method. For a spherical mirror with a ROC of 41,400 mm, the measurement accuracy is better than 0.13%.

Recent results on the effects of matrix aging condition (matrix temper) and notch root radius on the measured fracture toughness of a SiC particulate reinforced aluminum alloy are reviewed. Stress intensity factors at catastrophic fracture were obtained for both underaged and overaged composites reveal. The linear relation found between apparent fracture toughness and the square root of the notch root radius implies a linear dependence of the crack opening displacement on the notch root radius. The results suggest a strain controlled fracture process, and indicate that there are differences in the fracture micromechanisms of the two aging conditions.

Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 abundances with global-coverage are needed to quantify processes that regulate CO2 exchange with the land and oceans. The 2007 Decadal Survey for Earth Science by the US National Research Council recommended a space-based CO2 measuring mission called ASCENDS. We have been developing a technique for the remote measurement of tropospheric CO2 concentrations from aircraft and as a candidate for the ASCENDS mission. It uses the 1570-nm CO2 band and a dual channel laser absorption spectrometer (ie DIAL used in altimeter mode). It uses several tunable laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of the absorption from a CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the oxygen A-band, and surface height and aerosol backscatter in the same path. It directs the narrow co-aligned laser beams toward nadir, and measures the energy of the laser echoes reflected from land and water surfaces. During the measurement, the lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line (near 765 nm) at a 1 kHz rate. The receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. We use pulsed laser signals and time gating to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject photons scattered from thin clouds and aerosols in the path. Previously we had constructed breadboard versions of our CO2 and O2 sensors, using tunable diode lasers, fiber laser amplifiers and 20 cm diameter telescopes. We have used them to make measurements of gas absorptions over 0.2, 0.4 and 1.3 km long outdoor paths. We also have also calculated several characteristics of the technique for space and have performed an initial space mission

We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity and precision of a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide (MPLCW) system for measuring colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in the UV-visible spectral range (370-700 nm). The MPLCW has four optical paths (2.0, 9.8, 49.3, and 204 cm) coupled to a single Teflon AF sample cell. Water samples were obtained from inland, coastal and ocean waters ranging in salinity from 0 to 36 PSU. Reference solutions for the MPLCW were made having a refractive index of the sample. CDOM absorption coefficients, a(sub CDOM), and the slope of the log-linearized absorption spectra, S, were compared with values obtained using a dual-beam spectrophotometer. Absorption of phenol red secondary standards measured by the MPLCW at 558 nm were highly correlated with spectrophotometer values (r > 0.99) and showed a linear response across all four pathlengths. Values of a(sub CDOM) measured using the MPLCW were virtually identical to spectrophotometer values over a wide range of concentrations. The dynamic range of a(sub CDOM) for MPLCW measurements was 0.002 - 231.5/m. At low CDOM concentrations (a(sub 370)

Spherical flame initiation from an ignition kernel is studied theoretically and numerically using different fuel/oxygen/helium/argon mixtures (fuel: hydrogen, methane, and propane). The emphasis is placed on investigating the critical flame radius controlling spherical flame initiation and its correlation with the minimum ignition energy. It is found that the critical flame radius is different from the flame thickness and the flame ball radius and that their relationship depends strongly on the Lewis number. Three different flame regimes in terms of the Lewis number are observed and a new criterion for the critical flame radius is introduced. For mixtures with Lewis numbermore larger than a critical Lewis number above unity, the critical flame radius is smaller than the flame ball radius but larger than the flame thickness. As a result, the minimum ignition energy can be substantially over-predicted (under-predicted) based on the flame ball radius (the flame thickness). The results also show that the minimum ignition energy for successful spherical flame initiation is proportional to the cube of the critical flame radius. Furthermore, preferential diffusion of heat and mass (i.e. the Lewis number effect) is found to play an important role in both spherical flame initiation and flame kernel evolution after ignition. It is shown that the critical flame radius and the minimum ignition energy increase significantly with the Lewis number. Therefore, for transportation fuels with large Lewis numbers, blending of small molecule fuels or thermal and catalytic cracking will significantly reduce the minimum ignition energy. less


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